© Copyright 1996-2005
by David H. Hackworth
All Rights Reserved
The invitation to war or to intervention is almost always a propagandist's appeal to blinded emotion over reason, to a subset of convenient facts over the greater set of historical and present truths. About 475 BC, the Athenian playwright Aeschylus (a veteran) wrote "In war, the first casualty is truth," recalling two Persian invasions and a worsening rivalry with the Spartans. I am not a great fan of the Serbs for what happened in Bosnia, but in Kosovo the facts --and international law, for that matter--support the Serbs and not the guerrillas of the KLA or even Ibrahim Rugova's "non-violent" party. I have no Balkan ancestry, and thus, have no particular bias. In my objective analysis the US has "no dog in this fight" and we should do nothing that encourages an Albanian guerrilla war against Serbia.
I, too, suspect US-NATO troops may have to get into Albania to seal off the border, (effectively cutting the flow to the KLA), and perhaps we will reinforce the task force in Macedonia --if Russia lets us extend that mission past August. But don't expect US-NATO action against the Serb Army or police paramilitaries in Kosovo just yet. Nobody (US, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, etc) wants this to turn into a big fight and the KLA appears to be losing steam. If talk could kill the KLA would achieve independence in short order, but, the facts indicate the opposite. Also note that body count estimates aren't rising exponentially, indicating that these are controlled operations not wanton massacres. Nasty? A good bit, but a lot less bloody than Albanian advocates allege. If it were that bad you'd see more action in the diplomatic community than the current pious dithering. This is not a wanton repetition of Bosnia.
International law, the UN Charter, Helsinki Treaty and the convention creating the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) are all clear: minorities have civil rights, but borders may not be changed by violence. These laws prevented the creation of a "Greater Serbia" or "greater Croatia" carved out of Bosnia and now obstruct creation of a "greater Albania." Under the Yugoslav Constitution Albanian citizens in Kosovo have individual rights, but they do not have a right to arbitrarily take control of the ancient Serb province of Kosovo & Metohija and unilaterally declare independence.
Per the latest headlines, the US --out of Foggy Bottom-- is presently backing Tony Blair's proposal for a NATO intervention inside Kosovo, but I think this is mostly puffery to keep the press off their backs. I do not think that NATO ministers would approve an active engagement by consensus, and certainly, Russia and China will obstruct at UN Sec. Council.
Kosovo's Peculiar Background:
The circumstances in Kosovo are peculiar in that it is the heart of the ancient homeland, but its modern majority is non-Serb, thanks to the post- World War II politics of Tito's Communist regime. The western third of the Province of Kosovo, Metohija, was established as a direct dominion of the Serbian Orthodox Church in the Middle Ages and most land there remains the property of the many monasteries and convents in the region. This relationship was never upset by the Ottoman Turkish conquerors or by Marshal Tito. There is an old Albanian community, Catholics in the big towns and Muslims in rural districts such as Drenica, who have lived in the province since the 1300s. Urban Catholics tend to support the government while the rural Muslims are the core of the KLA. In all, lacking an accurate estimate, I think about 20% of the Albanian majority favor the Yugoslav government and about half the remainder only support Rugova or the KLA when under pressure, as is demonstrated by the flight of refugees into Pristina and Montenegro, as opposed to Albania. It is noteworthy that Albanian residents are not particularly harassed in Belgrade.
The majority of Albanian residents in Kosovo, though, are not of either of these ancient communities but are Albanian refugees who resettled in the province during or after World War II. Serb refugees, ethnically cleansed from the Drenica district in 1941-42, were never allowed by Marshal Tito, to reclaim their property after the war, as part of his multi-ethnic design for a federative republic. Instead, he encouraged more Albanians into the province and began subsidizing these people as an ethnic group. The situation soured from the mid-1960s as the Albanian population reached 75%. At that time, Tito instituted a national payroll tax of 1% to subsidize development of Kosovo, but this soon turned into a welfare subsidy. Serbs in Kosovo at the time were required (and still are) to study Albanian language from 7th to 12th Grade.
From the early 1980s, the Rugova-led Albanian party began to pressure for greater autonomy and began refusing to speak Serb; they began openly discriminating against the Serb natives of the province, hoping to drive the Serbs out and take over their property at rock-bottom prices. Student demonstrations initiated in 1980 became an "Intifada" after the Palestinians popularized the term. Finally, the Albanians walked out of their own schools and began a labor strike against all their own government jobs, when Milosevic terminated the national payroll tax subsidy and their autonomous status in 1989. What happened here is analogous to French-Canadians moving into New Hampshire and imposing French-only language laws while demanding autonomy, or Mexicans concentrating in New Mexico and seceding from the Union, while oppressing Gringos and the Navajo, Apache and Pueblo tribes. It is this naked attempt at a land grab that precipitated the crisis leading secession of Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia, as well. American politicians Joseph DioGuardi (a former NY congressman and now head of the Albanian-American lobby) and Bob Dole have a lot to answer for in their supporting role since 1986 and should not be viewed as credible authorities.
What is usually at stake in such political movements of ethnic minorities in former-communist countries is a desire to control some of the national capital asset base (all of which is still in government hands) in order to redistribute positions, perquisites and privileges among one's supporters. Further, independence attracts foreign aid in hard currencies which is easy to skim off and deposit abroad. So, too, with the Albanian independence movement in Kosovo; they can redistribute land, run TV, radio and print media, staff all government offices, reassign all government housing, etc. An Albanian- only language requirement and overt harassment would be used to chase the remaining Serbs from their ancestral homes. This is what the Serb people and Belgrade --not just Milosevic-- refuse to countenance. It is the mischief of Woodrow Wilson's "self-determination" policies and the UN's Human Rights charter to recognize and emphasize group ethnic rights to "behave" permanently over individual civil rights "to be," "to do" and "to behave" situationally (as with our 1st Amendment rights), that makes these political games not only plausible but profitable to ambitious leaders. Hitler gleefully invoked the Wilsonian principle of self-determination for the Sudeten Germans in 1938.
For good reasons, the KLA is an internationally recognized terrorist group and was listed as such by our own State Department when paramilitary operations began against them on March 1st as a result of their rising level of terrorism against Serb police and against Albanian loyalists, including several postmen and a forest ranger. The KLA is also associated with a major drug smuggling ring that runs from Turkey into Europe via the Balkans. To date, the KLA appears to have killed more Albanians than Serb police or soldiers.
I've learned from 7 years experience with Croatia, Bosnia and this that the Serbs are very accurate with their limited accounts, but shape their propaganda message to their own people at home and abroad to sustain the myth of a conspiracy and persecution against the Serb race. Rather than lie, they tend to shut up over inconvenient facts, such as the Srebrenica massacre in Bosnia. In the current Kosovo showdown, Albanians wildly exaggerate the facts from miles away from the events, and the foreign reporters on the ground, by and large, wind up tending to confirm the Serbs when they can get the facts past some rather biased editors in New York and DC.
A lot of reported details do not fit and we owe it to our warriors to check every allegation thoroughly. Regarding the alleged massacres at Prekaz and Srbica at the beginning of March, I noted in AP and Reuters dispatches from the scene that the Serb police allowed women, children and the elderly to evacuate before the assaults. Regrettably, the KLA ringleaders in Prekaz chose to keep some wives and children with them and about a dozen died, which fueled politically colored charges of a massacre. Still, some 90% of the non- combatants survived and more than thirty armed KLA fighters were captured alive out in the hills and imprisoned. How many women and children survived Ruby Ridge and Waco? Further, "mass graves" reported in the press and on TV turned out to be individually dug holes with polished coffins - I saw ITN-News film of the Prekaz burials on the Lehrer Newshour even as Jim Lehrer was solemnly intoning a description of a "mass grave" in his voice-over. In Prekaz, where the local Muslim cleric did not cooperate, the Serbs deliberately buried the coffins oriented in the wrong direction in relation to Mecca, requiring the Albanians to exhume the coffins, turn them 180 degrees, and re-inter them. In Srbica, the mullah cooperated and the gravediggers got it right the first time. The New York Times could only complain that the graves were closed with a bulldozer, but virtually every grave in America is closed with an earthmover of some sort.
Prekaz and Srbica, in the Drenica district, were strongholds of pro-fascist warlords who ethnically cleansed 30-40,000 Serbs out of the district in 1941-42. The men of that generation joined Mussolini's troops or the SS Skanderbeg volunteer mountain division (Freiwilligengibergsdivision) and chased the Chetniks and Partisans around the mountains. A reporter noted an SS tattoo on at least one older survivor in the Srbica-Lausa area back in March. Two other SS Mountain Infantry divisions were raised among the Croatians (Prinz Eugen and Kama) while Bosnian Muslims were recruited into the SS Handschar mountain division. A handschar is a type of Turkish saber, while a kama is a type of fighting knife. Prince Eugene of Savoy defeated the Turks at Belgrade in 1717.
An associate and director of SIRIUS was in Albania in mid-April and the place is an utter mess. Sure there's a lot of talk about greater Albania, and there's a lot of smuggling of AK-47s, etc. into Kosovo and Macedonia, but these Albanians are mostly rank amateurs and they are not making any headway. A lot of what's going on is very theatrical stuff among the Albanians to force people to choose sides between KLA, Rugova's party and Yugoslav loyalism and it gets nasty. Serb overseas press even reports some Albanian v. Albanian shooting on a small scale as some choose to resist the KLA.
Clearing the Border Area:
As to the KLA, they're losing the country-bred boys as each village, in turn, is retaken by the Serbs. Sure, they've got hundreds of young volunteers flowing in from the cities of Germany, Switzerland and elsewhere, but these lads have no experience in the boonies, no prior military experience and are getting only a few days of superficial training --shake and bake guerrillas? Further, reports from the border suggest the Serb Army is tightening security from its side and it is more difficult, each day, for the KLA platoons to infiltrate --this is not a difficult or overlong border to seal off. Thus, a NATO mission in Albania actually tends to serve the Serbian purpose, rather than complicating it. But we have seen that these missions don't really intervene actively, they observe and take note of smuggling but do not intercept smugglers, as the Macedonian Force has demonstrated.
Serbia developed its own short-range ground surveillance radar, the IR-3, a few years ago, and that may be helping in the problem of intercepting these resupply parties coming over the hills. It can detect a walking man at 1500 meters. IR sensors would be useful too because of mountain fog as well as night infiltration. I've noted in some reports that the Serbs have intercepted reinforcing parties but the KLA-types then disappear back into the morning mountain fog, so there is a pattern the Serbs have taken note of.
In total, some 40,000 people from 20 or more villages and towns are being forcibly relocated in order to suppress the KLA guerrillas. In the last two months, some three thousand or more Serbs have been cleansed out of several of these villages, too, precipitating the paramilitary action against KLA. There is even a documented report of a 12-year old Serb getting murdered in his dooryard by KLA. Most Albanians now fleeing out of Decani valley (lovely flat farm land and lousy guerrilla country) and border area are fleeing not into Albania but either into Pristina or up into Montenegro (loyalists and neutrals). The Serbs, of course, are depopulating villages along the border in order to deny the KLA support bases that serve as strongholds, supply points and groups of handy hostages. This widens the denial zone (the press is already referring to this buffer as a "free fire zone"), making it more difficult to infiltrate by turning a 15-hour mountain passage into an even longer journey. With the summer solstice approaching, this further reduces the chances for successful infiltration of reinforcements and supplies.
I have seen several references to KLA attempts to turn the village of Decani and other villages into strongholds by digging trenches, bunkers and tunnels. But a cursory look at a map shows how vainglorious such attempts are. Decani village is in a flat "Polje" or valley and easily isolated - think Alamo or Dienbienphu. Prekaz and Srbica, retaken in early March, were in the middle of the hostile Albanian district of Drenica, but remote from Albania itself --not good strategy, operational execution or tactics.
As to a muscular intervention, not only is international law against it, given the facts, I further remind readers what Colonel David Hackworth recently wrote about the low state of readiness in 5th Corps, thanks to Bosnia, Macedonia, Kuwait and Clintonism in general. Its new commander admitted it would take 6 months to get the ground forces in Europe into combat readiness. I do not think the US and NATO can afford much more than a 20,000 man commitment to seal borders from the Albanian side, which serves to ease the Serb problem, by helping to interdict supply flows to the KLA. Meanwhile though Albania is in an advanced state of brigandage and chaos, there is a new and patently absurd UN effort to collect those 650,000 loose weapons inside Albania and disarm the populace in order to reduce crime --just like the weapons collection program in Somalia, remember? This initiative is led by Fred Eckhard --you wonder where these NGO-UN naifs get their ideas; Sarah Brady?
I think the KLA is going to get whipped in rather short order and Rugova will see his influence rise again. Sniping and small scale harassment will continue for a time, but this Serb operation is under rigorous control, so large-scale atrocities are not likely. Rugova is, at the end, still going to be faced with the same constitutional deal, local self-rule under the national constitution. He will get no level of autonomy that gives an Albanian parliament the ability to discriminate against Serbs in the province, nor the right of eminent domain needed to steal farmland and homesteads from the Serb monasteries and convents which have controlled the Metohija district since the 1100s. Further, the Serbs are getting even for the Albanian excesses of World War II. Rugova's people are going to have to go to work and pay their taxes like everybody else, and illegal immigrants from Albania are going to be weeded out and sent home. Any Albanian who really wants to enjoy freedom may, of course, attempt to find it inside Albania or overseas.
Benjamin C. Works
Exec. Director The Strategic Issues Research Institute (of the United States)
SIRIUS Long Island City, NY
* * * *
Mr. Works is a lightly-decorated Vietnam veteran who served in aerial reconnaissance in 1969-70 in III-IV Corps with the 73rd Surveillance Aviation Company, 1st Aviation Brigade. A graduate of Yale (1974) with an MBA from Boston University (1981) he spent 16 years in international banking and on Wall Street before serving as CBS Radio's principal radio network consultant during Operation Desert Storm, the Somali intervention of 1992-93 and subsequent crises. He continues to consult to CBS News and to FoxNews Cable network, while publishing a periodic newsletter, "Strategic Issues Today" on the Internet.
Mr. Works' older brother, 1st Lt Jonathan Phinney Works, 5th SFG (Yale-1964), was killed at Hai Yen (IV Corps) in January 1966. Their father, Maj. Nelson Works, Jr. (FA and Yale-1939) served in the ETO from St. Lo to the Elbe River and distinguished himself as a reconnaissance officer in the 644th Tank Destroyer Battalion before and during the Battle of the Bulge. Other ancestors have served their colony and country since the Pequot War of 1637.
YET ANOTHER VIEW OF KOSOVO
The enemies of the United States we once fought in World War II are not the enemies of today. Consider: Italy, Germany and Japan were the Axis powers and are now our friends in the many years since. China, once our ally in WWII, is rapidly and methodically becoming a major military, political and economic power, often at odds with the best interests of the United States and likely to become a super-power (with American business support).
Yugoslavia was forcefully united and harshly maintained under Tito and just as quickly fell apart after his death. Composed of ethnic Albanians, Bulgarians, Croats, Hungarians, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Muslims, Serbs, Slovaks, Slovenes, Yugoslavia fell apart under its own weight of historical ethnic animosity and lack of true national unity.
The Vatican recognized Slovenia and Croatia (both Axis supporters in WWII of which Tito was half, each) not, as some hidden conspiracy as some have charged, but as recognition of religious and de facto realities. To suggest the Pope John Paul II, a Pole who endured the Second World War, sanctioned their recognition in some hidden or dark agenda is ludicrous.
The present conflict in Kosovo (and the suppression of Bosnia) has its roots in Slobodam Milosevic's consolidation of Serbian power in the late 1980's when he took over the National Communist Party. In 1989, Milosevic brought Kosovo's judiciary and defense forces into Serbian control in a move that Croats and Slovenes opposed. Consolidating his power brought with it the breaking up of Yugoslavia and full-scale civil war in 1992.
Having control of the Serbian-led Yugoslavian military and para-military Serbian forces, Serbian control of Bosnia was contested by ill-equipped Bosnians and ethnic Croats. Serbian artillery of Sarajevo caused 68 dead and 200 wounded in its open market in February 1994 and 35 dead and at least 80 wounded in August 1995. Hardly defending Serbian towns against Muslim take-overs as some have proclaimed. Not content with indiscriminate shelling civilian population centers, Serbian "ethnic cleansing" operations became an almost established practice. Srebrenica (7000 dead found in mass graves) and the Zepa massacres are all well documented instance of Serbian atrocities, as well.
The animosity between Serbia and Kosovo has its roots back to 1385 and the Battle of Kosovo Polje when the Ottoman Turks defeated the Serbian hero Lazar. Large numbers of Albanians were encouraged to settle in this area, once Orthodox Christian. Many of the Serbs and Montenegrins left in the autonomous province of Kosovo after the 1981 riots cited ill treatment on the part of the more numerous (given their high birth rate) Albanians. Recent reports from Kosovo speak of Serbian security forces systematically "cleansing" and "liberating" villages. Apparently, the Serbian cycle has the potential of being recreated again.
The history of brutal suppression of ethnic minorities is not just a European invention. A look at the Indian Subcontinent and China bring to the forefront how little nations have advanced in this and previous centuries. It is hard for most Americans, especially, to understand hating people for their religion. Perhaps it's because many of our ancestors came to these shores in search of this same freedom and perhaps, too, because of our short history (relative to others) as a nation.
In Serbia's (Yugoslavia) case, perhaps it would be better to let Kosovo go.
-- Bob Baker has been a Threat Analyst for 27 years. Serving as such with the 1/525 MI Group in Vietnam, 1971-72, seven years with the European Defense Analysis Center and two stateside assignments for 13 years in the US Army. The past 14 years he has continued as a Threat Analysis for two defense firms. Degreed in government, he has authored articles for the US Naval Institute, American Intelligence Journal and the Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin.
ANOTHER SIDE OF THE KOSOVO EQUATION
The odd thing about press coverage of the Balkan wars has been its near unanimity and conformity to US "policy", such as it is. Where is the debate that, we hear piously repeated, is so healthy?
The Serbs, we are told, are the bad guys and their enemies are lambs led to the slaughter, despite evidence to the contrary. The enemies of the Serbs in the current wars are successor states to enemies of the US, all Nazi allies in World War II. Have those leopards changed their spots? Have we changed our colors?
Mr. Mosby's me-too piece on Kosovo supports the Clinton policy. But The draft-dodging Commander-in-Chief, between tender moments in the Oral Office, and recently orating a Kennedy wannabe speech in Berlin, marches along the path taken by Tito, Mussolini, and Imperial Austria and Germany, Nazi Germany and post-Wall Germany. - towards more war.
The Balkan peoples would make peace without outside powers constantly fighting proxy wars in their territory. That means the "International community". Without the backing of Germany? Austria [now as in 1938-45 a de facto province of Germany], and the capitulation to Helmut Kohl and Hans-Dietrich Genscher of Bush-Baker in 1991, war would not have broken out. Let us note which state first recognized secessionist Slovenia and Croatia, both heirs of Nazi Germany; non less than the Vatican. Americans, of all people, should expect that secession leads to war. Peace will come to the Balkans, as to Ireland, when the invader gets out.
Mr. Mosby on the Kosovo crisis, and the preceding war in Bosnia, is uninformed. He paints Slobodan Milosevic with the 1991 editorialists? brush as the trouble-maker in Kosovo. But even the Serbophobic Warren Zimmerman, the US ambassador responsible for pushing Yugoslavia onto the slippery slope to war, noted on the PBS TV Lehrer Report in February 1998 that the Kosovo crisis is not a Milosevic creation.
Since 1995 Sloba has been Washington's man in Belgrade. Milosevic compliantly disarmed and sabotaged the Western Serbs who, as Defense Secretary William Perry conceded on CBS TV one Sunday in November 1994, had defeated Croatia and Islamic Bosnia on the battle-field despite a huge disadvantage in infantry strength. (That's why they used artillery as they did.) Only after the advent of MPRI's Rent-A-Generals and overt and covert US aid did the "Croatian ?Bosnian victory" take place. Peace would have broken out in 1994, thousands of lives would have been saved, if the Serbs had been permitted to keep their victory and their lands and let the secessions enjoy their sectarian statelets. Instead we have a neo-Nazi capital in Zagreb and an Islamic one in Sarajevo. And US tax payers are out over $10 billion dollars.
Mosby is hardly alone in lacking information, ancient and modern. In spring 1992 Secretary of State Warren Christopher had put his foot in his mouth, blasting the Bush administration not "stopping the Serbs when they came across the border". That border was manned by Roman legions: Serbs got to Bosnia not much later than Angles and Saxons splashed ashore in Britain. -- We have met the invader and he is US.
As for Bosnia 1992-1994, Mosby hasn't read General Boyd's 1994 Foreign Affairs article. In 1992-1994 Serbs were not grabbing others' lands, with the exception of strategic choke points such as Brcko, but trying to hang on to their own and what had been theirs centuries before the predations against Eastern Christians of Islam and Catholicism. The guns on the hills around Sarajevo were defending against the Muslims' take-over of the Serbs' towns. When NATO struck in 1995, two weeks that will live in infamy, and attacks that make Guernica look like a hiccough, Serbs quit their towns rather than live under Islamic rule, just as Copts are fleeing Egypt, and Bethlehem's? Christians, once a majority, are also voting with their feet. Mr. Mosby flunks Islam Info 101.-- There is a fatwa out on all us infidels.
Serbs in Kosovo, just as in Croatia, and Bosnia are under orders, like Catholics in Northern Ireland, from "the International Community" (who elected them?) to forget any state of their own and to submit to existence in states run by hostile nationalities. Serbs, not uniquely among "infidels" (by the Muslim Book) fear Islamic majority rule. States such as Saudi Arabia, Iran or Pakistan do not tolerate minorities.
As for Kosovo in January-February, the 1998 journalism's vultures were already gathering. Dispatched by their Establishment editors These carrion eaters, tipped off that there would be kills, were posting "prophetic" reports on trouble in Kosovo a couple weeks before the conflict was uncorked at Drenica, a town (with a Serbian name). Among the 80 civilians killed there was the child of one of tribal chief Jashari's brothers and one of his wives. They had wanted to surrender. They had as little chance as the 80 folks at Waco and Ruby Ridge, who, moreover, were not firing mortars and heavy machine guns at the feds.
Now come the copy-cat "news reports" and editorials. Mosby's article is a pastiche of propaganda slogans in support of a jihad that practices rape of girls and nuns, that poisons wells, blinds and hamstrings farmers? cattle, and defiles holy places, defaces sacred art of the infidel Serbs. Albanians who would live in peace with their non-Albanian neighbors suffer the same fate.
Financing of the jihad for Greater Albania comes from heroin and prostitution rackets in Europe, and from highly specialized burglary teams in the USA, hitting supermarkets and jewelry stores. Just ask the cops. How much covert money the KLA gets from the CIA we do not know.
"Serb-dominated Yugoslavia" of the 1991 headlines was a hoax. Tito's motto was always "Strong Serbia, Weak Yugoslavia." Some "Serb domination".
Kosovo's autonomy. As Tito detached Vojvodina from Serbia, making it an "Autonomous Region" of Serbia, and as he detached Southern Serbia and called it "Makedonija", he also detached Old Serbia from the Serbia that had been recognized as a sovereign state by the Congress of Berlin. "Quasi-President" Ibrahim Rugova has admitted that under Albanian domination many crimes were committed against Kosovo's Serbs by the dominant Albanians. That was a "quasi" legal state.
Kosovo statistics and how they got that way. "Old Serbia" is the Serb term for Kosovo, and so it was even for the enemy Austro-Hungarian Empire. Mosby's paucity of historical information is matched by his statistics, which are meaningless for their lack of context
Statistics: In 1950 Darryl Huff Ph. D. published a best seller entitled "How to Lie With Statistics", an excoriation of the stupid uses and evil uses of statistics to sway opinion. . The stats on Kosovo used in today's press reports would fit right in with Huff's justly sarcastic horror stories. Let's look at these "statistics" in several contexts, time, authorship etc. Else they are taken "out of context", no?
Stat # 1: Context of authorship: - Says who?. The population figures ranging from 1.5. to 2 million Albanians in the province have a spread that is acceptable to nobody with statistical and demographic smarts. Kosovo Albanians, like Chicago's First Ward Democratic Party organization, have creative ways of counting, let us, awe old Army grunts, say, bodies. Some constituents vote from the graveyard, some from exile in far-off countries. Some great grandmothers and still-born infants had been receiving their pensions/benefits every month. A number to take seriously would be one million Kosovo Albanians.
Stat # 2. "Kosovo 92 percent Albanian". Context of time: When? If this means in 1998, how about a few years back? -- Poland used to one third Jewish.-- How did that change? In Old Serbia it wasn't German gas chambers, but knives and guns of Albanian pandours, successively, of Ottoman Turkey, Mussolini's Repubblica Sociale, then of the Socialist Federative Republic Yugoslavia of the Stalinist Comrade Josip Broz "Tito", son of a Slovene mother and a Croat father. In World War I the good soldier Broz had been an Austro-Hungarian sniper killing Serbs.
Stat #3. "Kosovo 92 percent Albanian". 'since when? In 1918: there was ethnic equilibrium between the Serbs and the Kosovo Albanians: there were 46.5 percent Serbs, 7.7 percent of Turks, Romas, and other minorities, and 45.8 percent Kosovo Albanians.
After 1918 the ethnic changes in Kosovo are the result of an enormous increase in the birth rate among Kosovo Albanians so that already in 1940 the situation was as follows: Slavic population (Serbs and Montenegrins) 34.46 percent and Non-Slavic elements: 65.54 percent. Muslim polygamy plays the major role here: a man who can afford it is entitled by the Koran to four wives ? at any one time; divorce is executed by three times pronouncing the formula "I divorce thee!". Some of the "wives" are little girls who, as one (female) observer of women's rights in Islamic societies aptly puts it, "still playing with dolls". Albanian nationalism abuses women, using them as baby machines for the expansion of Greater Albania, not only to include Old Serbia, but also Macedonia, where the Albanian percentage of the population is higher than in Old Serbia.. [Where are the feminists? Worrying about sexist pronouns, it seems.]
Besides the differing birth rates, the former Serb majority was literally cut down, under the malicious tyrannies of the Sultan, Mussolini and Tito. The latter expelled hundreds of thousands of Serbs and brought in hundreds of thousands of Albanians from across the border. That's when the border should have been sealed. Tito then forbade Kosovo Serbs driven out by the Albanians to return. The Albanian insurrection is a war of total conquest, merciless jihad towards any minority. (There are other peoples there, too, not only Serbs and Albanians.) -Serbs would have no anxieties about living as a minority community in a state that that protects minorities.
Tolerance is not the program of Rugova nor of the KLA, nor of Islamists anywhere. For them the world is divided into two territories, "the land of Islam ["Submission"]" and "the Land of the Sword".
A friend of mine, like me not Serbian, related to me a conversation he had in Kosovo back in the 1980s with some young Albanians. He asked them "what do you guys do for fun?" They answered: "Serb-hunting".
The author, John Peter Maher is a Professor Emeritus of Linguistics, having retired in June 1993 from Northeastern Illinois University in Chicago. In the 1970s he was a tenured Professor of English linguistics at the University of Hamburg, Germany. he speaks Serbo-Croatian, German, and Italian, and reads several other languages.
2. In 1958, after completion of basic training and the course for Special Agent, Counter-Intelligence Corps, US Army, in conjunction with his interest in the Slavic world he volunteered for a one-year course in the Serbo-Croatian language, completing this with honors. He was thereupon assigned to the 430th Military Intelligence Battalion, SETAF (Southeast Europe Task Force), stationed in Vicenza and Verona, Italy, from May 1959 to May 1961. He was assigned to the Yugoslav desk of this unit. He had two MOSs (Military Occupation Specialties), Special Agent CIC and Interpreter-Translator (Serbo-Croatian, Bulgarian) and translated documents into English from these languages, as well as Italian and German. In the years that followed he continued to study the geography, history, demography, and politics of the countries of central and south central Europe. In September 1966 he served as Fulbright lecturer at the University of Trnava, Czechoslovakia, and from October 1966 to February 1967 at the University of Sofia, Bulgaria. He spent a semester's sabbatical in 1970 in regions of Austria and Italy adjacent to Yugoslavia and home to the indigenous minority Slovenian minority populations.
3. In 1989 he was awarded a Fulbright lectureship at the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, Yugoslavia. He taught there from February to July 1990. This was a year before the outbreak of war stemming from the secession of Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina from Yugoslavia. The outbreak of war in Yugoslavia in 1991 intensified his interests. In 1992, 1993, 1994 1997 he again traveled to former Yugoslavia, and has continued to follow developments in the press, on television, short wave radio, and satellite television from Yugoslavia.
4. In March 1992 he traveled to Serbia, Monte Negro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Dalmatia (Croatia). He spoke with plain citizens, officials, church dignitaries, soldiers, and scholars.
5. In March 1993 he visited Serbia, including Pristina, Kosovo, and talked there with the mayor and ministers of health, education, and information. In Belgrade he had an audience with the Serbian Orthodox Patriarch Pavle;. He also interviewed Bishop Jovan, Metropolitan of Zagreb (Croatia) and Ljubljana (Slovenia).
6. In April 1994 he traveled to Serbia and the western Serb lands of Serb Bosnia, and Krajina (Croatia), to get an up-date on the problems of Serbs in Croatia and Slovenia.
7. In September 1997
he traveled to Hungary as an invited faculty member of a symposium, termed
"Budapest University", of the Young Presidents Organization.